Sunday, March 29, 2020
Civil War: American The American Civil War In 1860, arguably the world's greatest nation was locked in Civil War. The war divided the country between the North (Union) and South (Confederate). The war lasted five years and by 1865 the Confederate forces were truly beaten. Out of this horrendous war though, where some 600,000 men died grew a greater sense of nationalism than is today, unrivalled around the world. The American Civil War is interpreted differently by many historians but most see the catalyst as slavery, the motivation as economic, the outcome was a unified national identity. Slavery was a major issue that triggered the American Civil War. Slavery started out, as a few individual slaves coming from England that were generally white. This changed however, and soon the Southern slave traders began 'stealing' blacks to take back to the South. The slaves were forced to work 16-hour days, slave women were only seen as breeders and there were no laws against the rape of a female slave. In 1860 slaves accounted for one third of the South's population and even still they had no rights (see appendix one). The Unionist North many people believed it was immoral to own another human being. These people were called Abolitionists. The South relied strongly on the slave trade and when the North spoke of abolishing it, the South spoke of forming there own country, The Confederate states of America. The South began to see that the North was going to take action against the South's inhumane slave policy. In early 1860, South Carolina formed under a new flag, Confederate States of America flag, so that they could continue to operate their slave trade. What followed was an ordinance of succession which saw the other slave populated states also swear an oath to the Confederate States of America, also so that they could continue their slave trade. This situation was found to be unworkable and it divided the country in two. So in the words of Abraham Lincoln, 'A house divide against itself can not stand. I believe this country can not endure permanently half-slave, half-free.' Slavery formed two opposing societies and could not have been abolished with out the Civil War. The North was very industrialised and had a stable economy in comparison to slave-dependant South. During the mid-1800s immigration to the North skyrocketed. Jones says, 'the immigration (many escaping the Irish potato famine) were willing to work for almost anything and withstand inhumane factory conditions.' Although this exploitation was extremely cruel and much like the treatment of the slaves in the South, the Northern economy profited immensely (Brinkley,1991:264). Come 1860, the Union had an overwhelming advantage over the South. The North played host to 109,974 industrial firms whereas the South had only 18, 026. The Northern States also produced 96%of the locomotives in the entire country, and as for firearms, more of them were made in Connecticut than in all the Southern factories combined ("Civil War", Encyclopedia Americana:1988). The Southerner's believed cotton to be their biggest industry and economic boosted during the Civil War but they had no factories capable of processing the cotton. The cotton was sent to Northern factories to be processed for a fraction of the price the Union sold it back to them for. This cycle alone made a huge idiosyncrasy in the economies. So with all the industrial and many economical advantages over the South was it any wonder that the North were victorious in the Civil War? The cost of the Civil was tremendous not only in money but in lives taken. By 1865, the South surrendered, slavery was abolished and President Lincoln was assassinated the total cost of the War for all American's was around 15 billion dollars but priceless for the 600,000 lives lost. What came out of this war however suprised everyone, in the next centaury America was seen as the strongest nation in the world. The cause of the war was finally resolved when slavery was abolished and because of this many inhumane slave owners went bankrupt with out the slaves running the farms. What followed the American can only be described as the birth of a Unified National Identity. In this period of 5 years in which many people died many of America's major problem have been solved. Since the Civil war towns have been rebuilt, mew industries flourish, and new schools have been erected. Now in America both the North and South live prosperously and peacefully together. Schenck describes America at the close of the war as, 'A developing industrial nation emerged from
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Q Words Q Words Q Words By Mark Nichol Have you ever noticed the similarity in vocalization when you utter words starting with wh- and those beginning with qu-? Go ahead and try it now. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t be embarrassed nobodyÃ¢â¬â¢s looking. Huh your mouthÃ¢â¬â¢s moves are almost identical, right? But thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not coincidental, because many English words beginning with wh- are akin to Latin terms beginning with qu-, and, of course, many English words beginning with qu- are directly descended from the language of ancient Rome. And others of our wh- words and qu- words have some conceptual kinship, too. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s look first at the journalistÃ¢â¬â¢s keywords: Who is from the Latin word qui. What, when, where, why, and how, though not derived from Latin (theyÃ¢â¬â¢re all from Old English), are cognates words related to another by common descent from an ancient language of who, which is. In addition, quite a few words starting with qu- refer directly or indirectly to the concepts behind these basic interrogatives. Note in the etymologies listed after each term and before the definitions below how often the wh- words show up or are implied: Quality (qualis, Ã¢â¬Å"of what kindÃ¢â¬ ): character, air, or nature (Ã¢â¬Å"He had a bookish quality to himÃ¢â¬ ), property (Ã¢â¬Å"The painting has an ephemeral qualityÃ¢â¬ ), role (Ã¢â¬Å"She adopted the quality of a mentorÃ¢â¬ ), grade (Ã¢â¬Å"The relative quality of the two brands is indistinguishableÃ¢â¬ ) Quantity (quantus, Ã¢â¬Å"how muchÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"how largeÃ¢â¬ ): amount or number (Ã¢â¬Å"The quantity of items in the box is listed on the backÃ¢â¬ ) Quandary (unknown; perhaps informally derived from quando, Ã¢â¬Å"whenÃ¢â¬ ): state of doubt or perplexity (Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m in a quandary about thatÃ¢â¬ ) Quantum (quantus, Ã¢â¬Å"how muchÃ¢â¬ ): quantity, portion, or bulk, or a subdivision of energy or matter; usually used in the expression Ã¢â¬Å"a quantum leap,Ã¢â¬ which technically refers to a submicroscopic event but in popular usage denotes a significant increase or progress Question (quaerere, Ã¢â¬Å"to seek, askÃ¢â¬ ): an expression of inquiry, or something discussed or disputed; also, possibility Ã¢â¬Å"(Ã¢â¬Å"ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s no question of repairing itÃ¢â¬ ) or objection (Ã¢â¬Å"I have no question about his qualificationsÃ¢â¬ ) Quiddity (quid, Ã¢â¬Å"whatÃ¢â¬ ): essence (Ã¢â¬Å"The sculpture portrays the quiddity of the subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s frailtyÃ¢â¬ ), or eccentricity or quibble (Ã¢â¬Å"Despite her quiddities, I like herÃ¢â¬ ) Quondam (quondam, Ã¢â¬Å"at one timeÃ¢â¬ ): erstwhile, former (Ã¢â¬Å"I heard from my quondam friend Joe the other dayÃ¢â¬ ) Quota (quota pars, Ã¢â¬Å"how great a partÃ¢â¬ ): a proportional share or limit (Ã¢â¬Å"They met their quotaÃ¢â¬ ) Quotidian (quotidie, Ã¢â¬Å"every day,Ã¢â¬ from quot, Ã¢â¬Å"many, how manyÃ¢â¬ and dies, Ã¢â¬Å"dayÃ¢â¬ ): commonplace, everyday (Ã¢â¬Å"Its quotidian lack of flair bored meÃ¢â¬ ) Quotation (or Quote) (quot, Ã¢â¬Å"how manyÃ¢â¬ ): something repeated or referred to, or the process of doing so, but originally referred to numbering (Ã¢â¬Å"Read the quotation from the bookÃ¢â¬ ) Also, note quo (Ã¢â¬Å"in whichÃ¢â¬ ), which occurs in the ubiquitous Ã¢â¬Å"status quoÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"the state in whichÃ¢â¬ ), the less common Ã¢â¬Å"quid pro quoÃ¢â¬ (this for that), and Ã¢â¬Å"quo vadisÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"where are you going?Ã¢â¬ ), based on a verse in the Bible and popularized by a novel by that name and its screen adaptations but seldom used by writers and speakers of English. See the connections in the following words? Quiet is derived from quies, meaning Ã¢â¬Å"rest or silence,Ã¢â¬ as is while, which can also refer to a duration of time a quantity. Quit (from quietus, meaning Ã¢â¬Å"freeÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"calmÃ¢â¬ ) implies the end of a quantity of time or action, while quite, in the senses of Ã¢â¬Å"veryÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"thoroughlyÃ¢â¬ degrees of quantity has the same etymological origin. And quiz may have a direct link: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s probably derived from qui es, which means Ã¢â¬Å"who are you?Ã¢â¬ Not all words beginning with qu- share these origins, of course. Quack and quail are onomatopoeic. Quaint, though stemming from Latin, is not derived from a qu- word. Queer is Germanic (quirk may be related), as are quench and quick, both from Old English. But one thing most qu- words share is some quality, quiddity, or quirk that makes them quite useful to writers. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Avoid Beginning a Sentence with Ã¢â¬Å"WithÃ¢â¬ The Four Sounds of the Spelling OUThe Difference Between "Un-" and "Dis-"
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Summarize the article - Essay Example The authors state that core mathematics programs that use an explicit and systematic instructional approach provide an in-depth coverage of the most critical areas of mathematics and help students with disabilities achieve the best and effective learning. This core programs reflect the current research on effective mathematics instruction meaning that they are highly developed to support the learning of mathematics for children with disabilities. The authors point out that much of the research done on this area have concentrated on the effects of small group intervention strategies. For learners with disabilities, modifications are required from time-to-time. Therefore, core programs give teachers the instructional foundation to make modifications that are required make the instructional intensity effective especially for struggling learners (Doabler, Jungjohann and Baker 50). Research has indicated that many reviews in the curriculum fail to address demonstration of target content, structured student practice and procedures to get academic feedback. However, there are certain guidelines that teachers can use to make their core mathematics instruction more explicit and systematic for children at risk of mathematics disabilities. However, the teachers must understand the importance of explicit and systematic instruction. First teachers must understand what explicit and systematic instruction entails. Research has indicated that children at risk of mathematics disabilities (MD) learn better, when teachers use explicit and systematic instruction. Explicit instruction is a method used for teaching essential skills in the most efficient manner. Explicit and systematic instruction entails unambiguous teaching models, sequencing of instructional examples, instructional scaffolding, timely feedback and cumulative review of the whole process. The second issue is the practical guidelines for examination and enhancement of core math instruction. The authors
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Logistics and Supply Chain Management - Case Study Example This discussion stresses that a supply chain may not be used to only cut costs. Instead, it could also be used to increase revenues and hence profits. The costs could still remain the same. It gives an organization a competitive advantage against its competitors. It does not allow any sale to be lost. When the customer wants something, an effective supply chain would ensure that it is available. This increases the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in the company and encourages brand loyalty. It also helps keep a close contact with the suppliers which ensures that maximum advantage can be gained out of doing business with them.This paper highlights that Zara is one of the largest brands, by the Inditex Fashion Retail Group, that has 723 stores in 56 countries making sales of Euro 3.8 billion. Zara has a very high product turnover. It makes more than 11,000 products annually. The annual report of Zara (Inditex) for the fiscal year 2006 covers all activities from February 2006 to January 2007. Zara opened 138 new stores during the past year, increasing its selling area by 15%. The sales were an increase of 21% at Euro 5,352 million. It earned net profit of Euro 1 billion an increase of 25%, was in contrast to last yearÃ¢â¬â¢s profit. The sales in Europe, with exception to Spain, were 40.6% of the total. After considering all this impressive data and the number of shops, it is clear why a widespread company like Zara needs a supply chain which is efficient.... When the customer wants something, an effective supply chain would ensure that it is available. This increases the customer's interest in the company and encourages brand loyalty. It also helps keep a close contact with the suppliers which ensures that maximum advantage can be gained out of doing business with them. Zara is one of the largest brands, by the Inditex Fashion Retail Group, that has 723 stores in 56 countries making sales of Euro 3.8 billion (India Supply Chain Council, 2006). Zara has a very high product turnover. It makes more than 11,000 products annually. The annual report of Zara (Inditex) for the fiscal year 2006 covers all activities from February 2006 to January 2007. Zara opened 138 new stores during the past year, increasing its selling area by 15%. The sales were an increase of 21% at Euro 5,352 million. It earned net profit of Euro 1 billion (Safe G., 2007) an increase of 25%, was in contrast to last year's profit. The sales in Europe, with exception to Spain, were 40.6% of the total. (Inditex Annual Report, 2007) After considering all this impressive data and the number of shops, it is clear why a widespread company like Zara needs a supply chain which is efficient. Zara's fashion is based on imitation; it copies designs from the catwalk and other spots and brings them to their customers at low prices in as little as a couple of weeks. Since this is all the time that is given to them, the whole process of designing, ordering, producing and delivering the clothes to the stores must be quick and timely. If this is not done, Zara will not have enough new items to bring to the shelves (which is its technique) every two weeks. Since Zara does not advertise, this is the only way it can attract customers. When the
Monday, January 27, 2020
Explain Intra Industry Trade Economics Essay The basic definition of international trade is the exchange of items or commodities between countries without considering the nation boundary. The country is able to export a product when the product industry has grown completely and the production is far more than the demand of the home country. Import activity is done by purchasing certain product from other country to meet the demand of the nation about certain product. Economies of scale determine the import and export activity. Trading is the cause for organizations to focus on cost efficiency. Another point of view for organizations to think about trade is it expands the industry boundary without any limit. The industry can expand its business activity and the output to export. If an organization is producing a product in large quantity, there is a phenomenon that its cost will reduce and it is call economies of scale. Example: if the fixed cost to produce product A is 5000/-, the variable cost is 4/ unit. The lesser the company will produce the higher will be the cost. And the higher the quantity is produced the fixed cost will be divided more on the large number of units produced. Figure Import Export mechanism Economies of scale are of two types, one is external and one is internal economies of scale. Internal economies of scale are due to the technological advancement in the firm. The firm is cost efficient due to technological change at a certain level of output. The external economies of scale are achieved by the help of third party. In this case the manufacturing companies took help for its business activities as it will increase the cost of the product if the company is doing it by its way. After outsourcing the activity to third party, the firm has managed to be cost efficient. The external economies of scale mean the cost efficiency due to the involvement of third party in term of technical or commercial support. In this case, the firm takes the services like training of the labour, technological help and all factors which can reduce the cost. In this case the economies of scale are internal for the industry and external for the firm. The important thing about economies of scale is that the countries with little differences in term of resources and technology are gaining the efficiency and becoming the part of intra-trade industry. As, world is a global village, the economies of scale explain the phenomenon of intra- industry trade in which countries are trading almost similar products with minor differentiation with each other. Economies of scale mean production in large quantity. If a country produces a certain product in large quantity it can lower the cost as the cost of the product is divided into two parts, variable and fixed cost. The greater the firms production capability, the larger the economies of scale and intra-industry trade. International trade theory explains the pattern for international trading between the countries around the globe. Intra-industry trade is more suitable for monopolistic competition than oligopoly. In monopolistic competition there is only one major player of the industry who holds the share of the market and price of the product. In monopolistic competition the firm produces in a large quantity which reduces the cost of the product. And in oligopoly many players have the share of the industry and price control power. According to Ohlin theory of trade, the trading between the countries is due to the lack of resources. The countries trade to utilize the resources and fulfil the need of the resources, because none of the country has enormous resources. The countries have to fulfil the demand of the resources and for that they need to import it from another country. The modern trade theory revolves around three factors which are technology, competitive structure, and scale of production (Robert, 2010). Competitive structure is related to the competitive advantage over the competitors in term of resources. These resources can be technical, cost efficiency or the product differentiation. The drivers of the economy are technology and economies of scale. Now days technology is playing the most important role in the economy as the cost efficient and effective of the factors of production depends on it. Technology is the factor which can either make the unit cost so high or the unit cost can be a minimum. Heckscher-Ohlin model of trade revolve around the economies of scale as the as it is the most important factor considered for trading. As, international trade theory explains the benefits of trading activities in any shape of resources (Robert, 2010). The basic benefit for internationally trading is to provide the nations a better living standard with lower price. Ohlin theory focused more on the economies of scale as trading, competitive edge depends on the cost of the product. Technology can be helpful in lowering the cost but economies of scale helps the firms not only expand their resources and capacity but also produce in large quantity which will lower the fixed cost of the production. In the nut shell economies of scale tends to increase the chance of the trading, as the purpose of trading is to provide better living standards to nations. Ohlin theory of trade focused on the 3 factors technology, competitive structure, and scale of production. Economies of scale are the most effective tool in term of lowering the cost of the product. Explain how intra- industry trade might be expanded via formation of regional trading agreements and custom unions. Are these international trading arrangements always trade creating? Trading is considered to be the most effective way to share the resources in term of commodities among countries. Economists have given a new concept to the world, as a global village. Economist believes that with this concept the world will utilize the resources in a standard way, and the living standard of the people will be same as there will be no hurdle for trading. The term intra-industry trade is used for international trading in which the countries import and export similar commodities with each other. This trading is done on the basis of cost efficiency, and the expertise of the resources. According to the new concept of trade, every country should focus on the resources it has and should get an edge over its competitors in the utilization of that resource. In intra- industry trade, regional trading agreements and custom unions are playing a vital role. There are two types of countries in the world, developed countries and under developed countries. In the new concept of the world trading, the developed countries will share the resources and their expertise with under develop countries to provide the same kind of living standards to the whole world. The trade agreements is been done in between different countries in order to expand the import and export. These agreements mainly focused on the conditions of trading between the countries. As, the trading should be balanced in between the countries, none of the country can only import goods or none of the country can only export goods. The trading should be in equilibrium. The trading agreements are reducing the national and political boundaries among countries. There are various types of regional agreements which have different kind of commitments from the participating countries. The Free Trade Areas (FTA) in which the members countries reduce the trade barriers among themselves in order to protect specific sector from the competition from the non members countries. In Custom Unions (CU) the participating countries agree on a common trade regime and also trading with non member countries on external tariff. European Union (EU) is the most committed trade agreement. These agreements have bigger advantages on the economies of the countries. In the nut shell these agreements and unions are helping the firms with the legal obligations and tax systems. While governments do these agreements, new policy of trade between the participants is been made to increase the trade and remove the barriers. With reference to the theory of optimum currency area, critically examine theÃ conditions for successful adaptation of a single currency by a custom union to enhance trade. Combine monitoring policy has become an important factor in the global economic era. Economists have made the world a global village and want to have single currency in the globe. In economics, optimum currency area theory focused on the sharing of currency among several countries in order to maximize the economic efficiency. It is also known as the optimal currency region without considering geographical boundaries. This theory explains the optimal features for combining several currencies or creating a new currency for performing economic activities. In optimum currency area theory the sovereign countries adopt a single currency for permanently combining their exchange rates. The single currency can fluctuate only in the union for performing economic activities and the trading with the participant countries can only be done with the merged currency. There are four main levels of the optimum currency area theory. In the first, Pioneering Phase the properties of OCA theory is been debated. The mainly discussions was on the exchange rates, financial markets, inflation and factors of production. The initial debate was to initiate the boarder of the currency and the resulting cost and benefits. In the second phase, reconciliation phase the properties of OCA is been analysed and it result in the drawbacks of some of the properties and new insight properties of OCA theory. These two phases result in analyzing the problem and inconsistency of exchange rates. However, theoretical and empirical evidences lead the concept from monitory union to cost and benefits which result in currency union. The new policies is been started to generate and many OCA properties were uniformed. These problems been coped up the in the third phase which is reassessment phase, which bought a new concept of one currency, one market. In the last phase empirical evidence in which the theoretical and empirical evidences is been examined. All OCA properties are re-evaluated to discover how their interpretation has transformed. European Union initiated Euro as one median of exchange in European countries. The trading with EU can only be done in Euro which has increased the usefulness of currency as one medium of exchange. The price discrimination, market segmentation will also decrease and it will increase the competition due to one currency and one market. OCA helps in the reduction of nominal exchange rate. EU depends on one currency which means if any of the country suffers a budget deficit it will impact the whole EU. This impact will not only strain on the interest rate but also the world confidence on one currency. In the nut shell, OCA theory applies on the world new concept of one global village. In which geographical boundaries have no importance. EU manages to trade through Euro as one currency and once market. Use recent EuroStat data to examine the extent and the pattern of intra-industry trade within the Eurozone trading area. What are the implications of your analysis for trade creation within this trading zone? Trade statistics helps both public and private users in shape of basic instrument for trade. The statistics helps the authorities to change their trade policy and improve competition as Eurostat data is the source of information about trade. After the new concept of world as a global village and sever as one market, Eurostat becomes the main source for data collection from the non EU member and EU members and a new system for data collection been introduced as INTRASTAT. Statistics on external trade and intra-EU trade are compiled on the basis of Community regulations. The tables used below are all taken from Eurostat. Trading has two ways, one is import and one is export. The definition of Import in terms of EU is the commodity or good which enters in to the statistical territory of EU from third world country. Export is defining as the good or commodity leave the statistical territory of EU. According to the Eurostat data the EU trading share to the world in term of exports is higher than any other union or country in 2010. The share of EU is 16 % in terms of export and 17.3% in shape of imports which means EU plays a vital role in the world inta-industry trade. The trade balance of Eurozone trading area is negative as the imports are higher than exports. The calculation of IIT indices can be done by several ways. It can be done by country to country and it can also be done by regions and unions. The formula is based facts and figure about the import and export of the country. The data is available on the official website of Eurostat. All the participant countries and non participant countries have to submit their trading data on Eurostat website on the basis of standard provided by UN. The data is available to the public for external trade and Intra-European Union trade statistics, as the private and public sectors analyse the opportunities thorough it. The information provided on EU on Eurostat in enough to calculate indices. The indices are determined as the price indicator. Indices can be calculated product wise, country wife and region wise. Here are some examples of Indices. import Export Y X Y X X-Y X+Y EU 1,509.10 1,349.20 0.173183 0.159873 -0.01331 0.333056 US 1456.5 944 0.167147 0.111859 -0.05529 0.279006 China 964.2 1168.3 0.110651 0.138437 0.027786 0.249088 Japan 506.1 541.1 0.05808 0.064117 0.006038 0.122197 South Korea 310.5 340.6 0.035633 0.040359 0.004727 0.075992 Canada 321.4 291.1 0.036884 0.034494 -0.00239 0.071377 Hong kong 305.2 287.8 0.035025 0.034103 -0.00092 0.069127 Singapore 220.5 256.1 0.025304 0.030346 0.005042 0.055651 Mexico 245.5 224.9 0.028173 0.026649 -0.00152 0.054823 Russia 162.8 280.5 0.018683 0.033238 0.014555 0.051921 India 245.4 166.6 0.028162 0.019741 -0.00842 0.047903 Australia 157.5 153.8 0.018075 0.018224 0.00015 0.036299 -0.02356 1.44644 world 8,713.90 8,439.20 World INDEX -0.01629 The table of indices shows that the above mentioned countries are importing more items than they are exporting. If the export and import are equal the index value is 1. If it`s less than zero it means that the imports of the country is exceeding over the exports. The trade balance is compulsory as it the country is focused on importing the commodities than the country is destroying its economy. And its the same as in case of exports. The table below shows the indices per month and year for EU countries. In the same way Indices can be calculated on the basis of product, consumption and even buying manners. 2011M11Ã 2011M12Ã 2012M01Ã 2012M02Ã 2012M03Ã 2012M04Ã 2012M05Ã 2012M06Ã 2012M07Ã 2012M08Ã 2012M09Ã 2012M10Ã One year Euro area (17 countries) -0.00891 0.00118 -0.00569 -0.01575 -0.00609033 -0.00452 0.000926 0.009519 0.002299 0.006505 0.015043 0.005026 -0.00047 Euro area (16 countries) -0.05322 -0.04283 -0.04994 -0.06064 -0.04955932 -0.04896 -0.04316 -0.03445 -0.04153 -0.03844 -0.02882 #DIV/0! -0.49156 EU (27 countries) -0.05288 -0.03875 -0.05201 -0.06928 -0.05291319 -0.05992 -0.04488 -0.04039 -0.04436 -0.0481 -0.04665 -0.05649 -0.60664 The calculations show that the EU countries are importing more items and exporting less. In this analysis many internal factors involve like factors of production in EU countries are much higher than other countries of the world. However, if in the case that even all of the exports are increasing in different sectors than increase in imports, it is possible than IIT will increase. Is Eurozone an optimal currency area? Provide a critical assessment of this issue using Ã key theoretical and empirical indicators including your analysis of the extent and the pattern of intra-industry trade within the Eurozone trading area in part (b), and an analysis of the extent of labour mobility in the Euro-zone trading area. Eurozone is optimal currency area as EU has initiated Euro as one medium o exchange. The concept of OCA theory is to share the currency or create a new combine currency which will be used by the participant countries as medium of exchange. European Union initiated Euro as one median of exchange in European countries. The trading with EU can only be done in Euro which has increased the usefulness of currency as one medium of exchange. It will bring the equality in term of paper money and markets. Competition will be more intense as the firms are not only competing with local manufacturers but also with international players. EU is been made for the purpose of intra-industry trade, as to combine the benefits of several countries and drivers of the economies. Regional trading agreements and custom unions are playing a vital role in international trade. There are two types of countries in the world, developed countries and under developed countries. In the new concept of the world tradin g, the developed countries will share the resources and their expertise with under develop countries to provide the same kind of living standards to the whole world. The trade agreements is been done in between different countries in order to expand the import and export. These agreements mainly focused on the conditions of trading between the countries. The competitive advantage theory of trade suggests the countries that every single country should focused on the competitive edge they can get from other competitors. They should only focused on their resources and their expertise rather than working in several industries without expertise. EU agreements help the participants in term of resources as well. There are no restrictions for the labour of EU countries to limits their services to home country. As, the new concept one currency, one market means the sharing of resources as well. The nominal unit of labour cost is the ratio total reimbursement of workforce with the number of persons employed. When there is a decrease in the Nominal unit it means that the unemployed number of labour is increasing. To control on EU participant countries nominal unit labour cost, it was decided to share the labour skills with all participant countries in order to get an advantage over non participant countries. There will be exchange programs on the government levels and training programs for the labour to train them well. The NULC is calculated by the formula: (total D1 in national currency / total employees in persons) / (GDP in market prices in CLV05 in national currency / total employment in persons) The nominal Unit labour cost of EU countries is given below: 2009Ã 2010Ã 2011Ã 2012Ã 2013Ã Belgium 8.8Ã 10.8Ã 8.0Ã 6.3Ã 5.8fÃ 7.3fÃ Bulgaria 26.7Ã 38.5Ã 33.9Ã 20.3Ã 9.6fÃ 6.9fÃ Czech Republic 6.5Ã 8.4Ã 5.7Ã 3.3Ã 1.3fÃ 2.8fÃ Denmark 13.6Ã 17.7Ã 11.0Ã 4.7Ã 0.2fÃ 1.6fÃ Germany -0.6Ã 7.2Ã 6.8Ã 5.9Ã 3.3fÃ 6.0fÃ Estonia 46.7Ã 36.2Ã 9.1Ã -6.2Ã -2.0fÃ 6.6fÃ Ireland 14.8Ã 6.7Ã -4.1Ã -12.8Ã -9.5fÃ -3.9fÃ Greece 6.6pÃ 14.5pÃ 11.5pÃ 4.1pÃ -12.3fÃ -12.1fÃ Spain 13.4Ã 11.4Ã 4.9Ã -2.1Ã -6.1fÃ -4.7fÃ France 6.8Ã 8.8Ã 7.7Ã 6.0Ã 4.4fÃ 4.9fÃ Italy 8.3Ã 10.5Ã 8.1Ã 4.4Ã 2.3fÃ 3.7fÃ Cyprus 4.0Ã 7.0Ã 7.2Ã 8.8Ã -0.8fÃ 0.4fÃ Latvia 79.4bÃ 42.0bÃ -0.3bÃ -15.0bÃ -7.7fÃ 2.2fÃ Lithuania 29.6Ã 15.9Ã 1.2Ã -8.4Ã -7.2fÃ 0.4fÃ Luxembourg 12.5Ã 19.3Ã 19.2Ã 12.5Ã 9.3fÃ 10.1fÃ Hungary 13.1Ã 14.0Ã 6.4Ã 3.7Ã 5.5fÃ 12.6fÃ Malta 8.3Ã 11.0Ã 9.4Ã 7.8Ã 1.5fÃ 3.6fÃ Netherlands 5.4Ã 10.2Ã 7.6Ã 5.8Ã 2.7fÃ 4.4fÃ Austria 6.1Ã 10.2Ã 8.9Ã 5.9Ã 4.1fÃ 5.1fÃ Poland 9.2Ã 12.8Ã 11.3Ã 4.3Ã 5.3fÃ 7.0fÃ Portugal 5.6Ã 8.0Ã 5.1pÃ 1.3pÃ -5.3fÃ -4.4fÃ Romania 48.6Ã 45.7Ã 36.5Ã 12.7Ã 12.2fÃ 6.5fÃ Slovenia 10.3Ã 18.4Ã 15.9Ã 8.3Ã 1.0fÃ 0.0fÃ Slovakia 6.7Ã 10.9Ã 9.4Ã 4.4Ã -0.9fÃ 0.7fÃ Finland 7.7Ã 16.9Ã 14.4Ã 9.1Ã 2.5fÃ 5.8fÃ Sweden 6.9Ã 12.1Ã 5.1Ã 1.4Ã -0.1fÃ 3.3fÃ United Kingdom 8.5Ã 11.1Ã 10.0Ã 8.1Ã 5.3fÃ 5.5fÃ
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Arthur Miller was born on 17 October 1915, in New York City. He lived in Harlem until he was fourteen. His Dad was a clothes manufacturer but lost all his money in 1929 when the stock market crashed. Due to the economic depression, which followed, when Miller graduated from high school in 1932 there was no money to send him to university. He worked for two years as shipping clerk, earning money to get him to college. He applied to the University of Michigan in 1934 and graduated from there in 1938. He worked in a Navy Yard while writing for the radio. His first successful stage play was All My Sons which opened in 1947 and later a film was made of it. Following this was the even more successful Death of a Salesman, which opened in 1949. These plays were seen as an attack on capitalism and during the McCarthy era of the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s there was a lot of hysteria surrounding the spread of communism. Senator Joe McCarthy was very anti-communist and was adamant that any communist activities in America should be stomped out and the perpetrators jailed. Although this seemed a good idea to some, McCarthyÃ¢â¬â¢s policy was you either confess to be a communist, or give names of communists, or you would go to jail. Due to All My Sons and Death of a Salesman being seen as an attack on capitalism, Miller was summoned before the House Un-American Activities Committee that had been in operation since 1938. He was told to confess to signing his name on various petitions that the court had received or he would be jailed. Arthur Miller linked the activities of the Committee to the Salem witchcraft trials in which a few adolescent girls accused people of Salem of witchcraft. If these people did not confess to witchcraft then they would be hanged. From this he was able to write the play, The Crucible. The Crucible is about a young girl named Abigail who is in love with a married man named John Proctor. Abby and some other girls confess to compacting with the devil and are seen as saints as they start naming people who they claim to be witches. Proctor is determined to stop them and he with some others try to oppose authority to uncover the truth. Miller has used John Proctor as metaphor for himself.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
University of Phoenix Material Philosophy Matrix | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Historical Developments | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Principal Issues | |Field |Definition | |Schools Of Thought |Key Contributors | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Metaphysics |The study of being: The nature |Plato developed the theory of |Monism |Pythagoras |Metaphysics: Questions about the | | |of being and what |forms and introduced skepticism |Materialism |Parmenides |nature of reality | | |characteristics make up being |about reality.Aristotle coined |Idealism |Heraclitus |Nature of ultimate reality | | | |the word metaphysics. Augustine |Dualism |Zeno |Permanence and Change | | | |reconciled Platonism with | |Empedocles |Appearance and reality | | | |Christianity. Aquinas reconciled| |Anaxagoras |Nature of human reality | | | |Aristotle with Christianity.The| |Plato |Mind-body problems | | | |Scientific Revolution | |Aristotle | Freedom and determinism | | | |Intelligent design versus | |Plotinus | | | | |evolution | |Augustine | | | | | | |Hypatia | | | | | | |Aquinas | | | | | |Anselm | | | | | | |Descartes | | | | | | |Hobbes | | | | | | |Hume | | | | | | |Kant | | | | | | |Kierkegaard | | | | | | |Conway | | | | | | |Spinoza | | | | | | |Leibniz | | | | | | |James | | |Moral |The study of ethics: The |Aristotle develops a system of |Ethical skepticism Descriptive |Plato, |What is a moral judgment? | | |nature, criteria, sources, |ethics. Roman influence: |Relativism Egoism Hedonism |Aristotle |What is morally right or wrong? | | |logic, and validity of moral |Epicureanism and stoicism ethics|Epicureanism Stoicism |Epictetus, | | | |value |become Christianized The Age of | |Augustine | | | | |Reason. |Hildegard, | | | | | | |Hobbes | | | | | | |Hume, | | | | | | |Kant, | | | | | | |Bentham, | | | | | | |Mill | | |Social |The study of society and its |Greek democracy Natural law |Natural Law Contractarian theory|Augustine |How should | | |institutions, including what |becomes Christianized and is |Environmental philosophy |Aquinas |goods be distributed in a | | |would make up an ideal society. |seen as the moral law of God. | |Hobbes |society? | | |Environmental concerns Social | |Rousseau |Do people have natural rights? | | | |justice | |Smith | | | | | | |Taylor | | | | | | |Mill | | | | | |Moore | | | | | | |Rawls | | | | | | |Nussbaum | | |Political |The study of the state, its |Greek democracy PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic|Democracy Constitutional Theory |Plato |What form of political state is | | |justification, and how to |Social contract Separation of |Classic Liberalism Marxism |Aristotle |best? | | |organize it ethically |power |Anarchism Libertarianism |Machiavelli |Can a government restrict the | | | | |Objectivism |Locke |liberty of its citizens? | | | | |Hegel | | | | | | |Marx | | | | | | |Nozick | | | | | | |Rand | | |Structuralism |The study of the rules and |Saussure app lied |Semiotics |Saussure Levi-Strauss |Study of the deep structure of | | |conventions of the language and|linguistics to epistemology. | | |language | | | |Levi-Strauss applied SaussureÃ¢â¬â¢s | | | | | |cultural mythology that govern |methods to cultural | | | | | |large social systems. |mythology. | | | |Deconstruction |The study of the assumptions |Derrida argued against |Free play of signifiers |Derrida |Seeks to expose assumptions about| | |about language, including the |structuralism. | | |language and multiple meanings | | |certainty, identity, and truth | | | |Literary criticism. | | |of text. | | | | |Eastern |The study of the philosophical |Vedic culture Travels of |Hinduism: Vedas, Upanishads |Siddhartha Gautama Buddha |Self-realization, Unity of mind | | |traditions of Hinduism, |Confucius and Lao Tzu Spread |Buddhism: Four Noble Truths, | |and | | |Buddhism, |of Buddhism from India to China |Eightfold | |Body, Harmony of man and | | |Confucianism, and Taoism. |& Jap an Spread of Islam |Path Taoism Confucianism Islamic| |environment | | | |transcendentalists embrace |philosophy | | | | | |Eastern thought Parliament of | | | | | | |World Religions begins spread f| | | | | | |Eastern thought in | | | | | | |America | | | | |Postcolonial |The synthesis of the |Colonization during the 18th and|Pan-African philosophy |Senghor |Social justice Preservation of | | |disciplines of philosophy with |19th centuries. As countries |African-American thought Latin |Hountondji |oral history and tradition | | |the |gained freedom, their thinkers |American thought |Tutu |Liberation of all peoples. | | |indigenous cultures of Africa, |sought social | |King | | | |the Americas, and Asia. |justice and recognition. |Hooks | | |Feminism |The study of the philosophical |First wave: Pioneers of feminism|Liberal Feminism Radical |Wollstonecraft |Equal rights | | |canon as reconstructed and | |Feminism Lesbian Feminism |Taylor |Moral theory and | | |revised to be inclusive of |Second wave: Activists from |Socialist Feminism Black |De Beauvoir |gender development issues Sexism | | |women and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s issues. |1960Ã¢â¬â¢s to 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s |Feminism Post-feminism |Gilligan |and language.Revisiting other | | | |Third wave: 1990s to present, | |Chodorow |schools of | | | |including younger women for whom| |Irigaray |philosophy from a feminist | | | |feminism is an established | |Kristeva |perspective. | | | |Heritage. | |Cixous | | Directions: Complete the entire matrix and then write a 350- to 500-word response for each of the following questions: What is one example of how the global integration of cultures has affected contemporary philosophical thinking? A manner of analyzing globalization in historical standpoint has to do with the economic and social account of global affairs, and especially with the history of past stages of speedy boost in global trade, investment, communication, and authority. There have been more than a few such instance s over the past centuries that come to mind. Among is the export and investment explosions of the 1860s and the earlier part of the twentieth century are merely a couple of the more remarkable instances. (2000) The history of these early periods, and of the institutions with which they were connected, is of substantial contemporary attention.Nonetheless, international history has to be far more than the history of the affairs involving states in the context of their international relations, or their conflicts, or their invasions and domains. It is in excess of the history of exports and imports among countries. (2002) It is over a comparative history. It have to be a history of affairs involving persons and customs, as well as people who belong to quite a lot of diverse cultures all together or who shift among diverse identities, modes of speech, home nations, and even nationalities. Characteristics of Globalization Globalization, has acquired considerable emotive force. Globalizati on has its own meaning from different individuals.For some, globalization is a process that is beneficial, i. e. a key to the future world economic development and also inevitable and irreversible. Others regard it with hospitality even fear, believing that it increases inequality within and between nations or organizations, threatens employment and living standards and thwarts social progress. Globalization (or globalisation) in its literal sense is a social change, an increase in connections among societies and their elements due to, among others, the explosive evolution of transport and communication technologies. The term is applied to many social, cultural, commercial and economic activities.